Tunning a car

Car tuning is both an industry and a hobby, in which an automobile, motor bike, scooter or moped is modified in order to improve its performance, handling and presentation and improve the owner's driving style. As most vehicles leave the factory set up for average driver expectations and average conditions, tuning has become a way to personalize the characteristics of the vehicle to the owner's preference. For example, they may be altered to provide better fuel economy, produce more power at high RPM or the ride comfort may be sacrificed to provide better handling.

Car tuning is related to auto racing, although most performance cars never compete. Rather they are built for the pleasure of owning and driving such a vehicle. Another major facet of tuning includes performance modification to the car exterior. This includes changing the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle via side skirts, front and rear bumpers, adding spoilers, splitters, air vents and light weight wheels


Audio

Is a term used to describe the sound or video system fitted in the vehicle. A stock audio system refers to one that was specified by the manufacturer when the vehicle was built. A custom audio installation can involve anything from the upgrade of the radio to a full-blown customization based around the audio equipment. Events are held where entrants compete for the loudest, highest quality reception or most innovative sound systems.


Interior tuning

Interior tuning is a term used for modifying of the interior of a car. for example; removing the back seats to make room for a sound system, or taking out the front seats and replacing them with racing seats - commonly known as bucket seats.

Another recent form of interior tuning is the replacement of the OEM Shift Knob with an aftermarket version such as a weighted shift knob for cosmetic and/or for performance purposes


Engine tuning

Engine tuning as of lately has been marketed as the replacement of basic engine components with aftermarket versions that perform the same functions as those replaced while promising an increase in power output. Car tuners usually install new turbochargers, modify the car's engine cooling unit, and replace the air filters; but they could also install a more powerful engine on the cars they modify.

For example a tuner could modify the engine control unit to gain more power. Another example is the modification and/or replacement of the OEM manual transmission stick shiftWeighted Gear Knob. (also known as a gear stick) with an optimized aftermarket design known as a short shifter. For further "fine" tuning, the driver could fit a


Suspension tuning

Suspension tuning involves modifying the springs, shock absorbers, swaybars, and other related components of a vehicle. Shorter springs offer greater stiffness, a lower center of gravity, and a lowered look. Stiffer shock absorbers improve the dynamic weight shifting during cornering and normally have shorter internals to stop them from bottoming out when shorter springs are used. Stiffer sway bars reduce body roll during cornering, thus improving the grip that the inside tires have on the surface; this improves handling response. Other components that are sometimes added are strut bars, which improve the body stiffness and help better maintain the proper suspension geometry during cornering. On some cars certain braces, anti-roll bars, etc., can be retrofitted to lower-spec cars from sports models.

For offroad vehicles, the emphasis is on lengthening the suspension travel and larger tires to increase ground clearance.

Lowriders with hydraulic/pneumatic suspensions use another unique kind of suspension tuning in which the height of each individual wheel can be rapidly adjusted by system of rams, even to the extent that it is possible to "bounce" the wheels completely clear of the ground.


Body tuning

Body tuning involves adding or modifying spoilers and a body kit. Sometimes this is done to improve the aerodynamic performance of a vehicle, as in the case of some wings or bumper canards, or, to lighten the vehicle through replacing bodywork components such as hoods and rear view mirrors with components made from lighter composites such as CFRP. Cornering speeds and adhesion can be improved through the generation of downforce.

More often however, these modifications are done mainly to improve a vehicle's appearance, as in the case of non-functioning scoops, spoilers, wide arches or any aesthetic modification which offers no benefit to performance. Very rarely does an after market spoiler or body kit improve performance, the majority add weight and increase the drag coefficient of the vehicle and thus reduce its overall performance.

Increasing the wheel track width through spacers and wide body kits enhance the cars cornering ability. Lowering the center of gravity is another aim of body tuning dealt with via suspension modifications. However, similar to the addition of non-functioning body kits and spoilers, oftentimes suspension tuners unfamiliar with spring dynamics will cut stock springs, producing a soft, bouncy ride. It is also common to lower the car too far, past the optimal center of gravity, purely for appearance.


Legal requirements


Many countries have legal requirements in regard to what car owners can and can't do in relation to vehicle modifications. For example, all vehicles in Victoria, Australia, must conform to construction standards to ensure vehicles provide drivers and passengers with a maximum level of safety.  There are also restrictions for P Plate drivers which can prevent young drivers from driving modified vehicles. 

In the United Kingdom and the Netherlands it is illegal for any car to have blue lights as they are used by the emergency vehicles.

In Scotland and Denmark, it is illegal for any car to have neon underlights on a car as it distracts other drivers. In the Netherlands neon is allowed under the car but only when the car is on display, if the car is on a public road the lights have to be switched off. Many police officers in the U.K are unsure on the exact legislation with regards to under body neons. Most say as long as the bulb is not visible itself then this is legal.

Recently, Belgium issued a new law which describes that bodykit parts need to be approved for safety issues.

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